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Therefore menstrual cramps icd 9 generic 2mg ginette-35 amex, the flow rate that enters a hood must be the same as the flow rate that passes through the duct leading from the hood women's health center mt zion order ginette-35 2mg line. At a branch entry (converging wye) fitting women's health clinic yuma arizona purchase ginette-35 2mg mastercard, the sum of the two flow rates that enter the fitting must leave it menopause levels trusted ginette-35 2mg. At a diverging wye, the flow rate entering the wye must equal the sum of the flow rates that leave it. Conservation of energy means that all energy changes must be accounted for as air flows from one point to another. The normally vertical exhaust stack is shown laying horizontally to facilitate graphing the variation of static, total, and velocity pressures. The application ofthese principles will be demonstrated by Air flows from the room (point I of Figure I-S) through the hood to the duct (point 2 of Figure I-S) where the velocity can be calculated by the basic equation: General Principles of Ventilation 1-7 Q 300 V = - = - - = 4490fpm A 0. If there are no losses associated with entry into a hood, then applying the energy conservation principle (Equation 1. It can, therefore, be used to determine the flow rate if the hood static suction is known. Losses due to friction in ducts are a complicated function of duct velocity, duct diameter, air density, air viscosity, and duct surface roughness. Acceleration of air to the duct velocity; and = diameter, ft v = velocity, ft/sec 2. An alternate method of describing hood entry losses is by the hood entry coefficient (C e). Some standard values of absolute surface roughness used in ventilation systems are given in Table I-I. Moody(ll) combined these effects into a single chart commonly called the Moody diagram (see Figure I -6). With a knowledge of both the Reynolds number and the relative roughness, the friction coefficient (f), can be found. One of these is that ofChurchill,(J2) which gives accurate (to within a few percent) results over the entire range of laminar, critical, and turbulent flow, all in a single equation. It should be noted that significant variations from these values may occur, depending on the manufacturing process. Several attempts have been made to simplify the determination of friction losses for specialized situations. The later work by Loeffler l4) presented equations for use in the "velocity pressure" calculation method. Using the standard values of surface roughness, equations were obtained that could be used with the Darcy-Weisbach equation in the fonn: Flexible duct, fabric wires covered nized duct connects the hood to a fan inlet. Because the duct area is constant, the velocity, and therefore the velocity pressure, is also constant for any given flow rate. Simplified equations were determined for the flow of standard air through various types of duct material with good accuracy (less than 5% error). The equations thus resulting were: where subscript 3 refers to the fan inlet location. Note that no correlation was made with the extremely rough flexible duct with wires exposed. This equation, using the constants from Table 1-2 for galvanized sheet duct, were used to develop the friction Tables 5-5 and 5-6. The proper one to use with the loss coefficient will be identified where the coefficients are listed. In Figure 1-5, 15 feet of straight, constant diameter galva- Most exhaust systems are more complicated than the preceding example. It is usually more economical to purchase a single fan and air cleaner to service a series of similar operations than to create a complete system for each operation. For example, the exhaust from 10 continuously used grinders can be combined into a single flow which leads to a common air cleaner and fan. This situation is handled similarly to a simple system, but with some provision to ensure that the air flow from each hood is as desired (see Chapter 5).
A row of tubercles pregnancy exercises order ginette-35 2 mg on-line, which in some specimens are fused low breast cancer 3a survival rates generic ginette-35 2mg on line, thick dermal fold womens health questions answers ginette-35 2 mg generic, extends the of the ventrolateral edge of the forelength arm; a weak transverse dermal fold is present into having smaller discs and pale brown or yellowish tan women's health exercise plan purchase 2 mg ginette-35 free shipping, instead of dark brown, on the posterior surfaces of the thighs. The fingers are rather short and and bear large discs; the width of the on the third finger is equal to the diameter bifid. The hind limbs are moderately short and robust; the heels of the adpressed limbs overlap by about one-fifth of the length of the shank. The tibiotarsal articula- the dorsum usually is some shade of brown, either olive-brown or dull reddish brown. In some individuals, darker reticulations of olive-brown or reddish brown are visible on the dorsum. A creamy yellow stripe extends the length of the flank and is not continuous with a thin white stripe on the upper lip, which is absent in some specimens. A weak dermal fold is present on the heel, and a low tarsal fold is present on the distal half of the tion extends to the tarsus. A distinct white stripe is present above the anal opening and on the ventrolateral edges of the forearms and feet. The anterior and posterior surfaces of the thighs are pale reddish brown to creamy tan. The stripe on the lip, flanks, forearms, feet, and above the anus are creamy white. The ventral surfaces are creamy tan, except the throat, which is dark gray or heavily suffused with brown in breeding face of the upper is the males. Tadpoles: poles is A developmental series of tad- available from 15 kilometers west- anal opening is directed posteriorly at the upper level of the thighs. A short, broad anal sheath is present, and numerous small tubercles are present below the anal opening. The skin on the throat, belly, and proximal the southwest of San Isidro el General, San Jose Province, Costa Rica (table 36). In dorsal profile, the snout is bluntly rounded, and in lateral are profile, it is acutely rounded. The body posteroventral surfaces of the thighs is granular; elsewhere, the skin is smooth. The tongue is broadly cordiform, shallowly notched behind, barely notched anteriorly in some specimens, and not free posteriorly. The sinistral spiracle is rather small and situated below the midline at about midlength of the body. At midlength of the tail, the depth of the caudal musculature is greater than the depth of either the dorsal or ventral fins (fig. The body and tail are pale tan with dark brown flecks and spots; the latter tend to form transverse bands on the dorsal surface of the tail. The iris is bronze in earlier developmental stages; in stage 38 or 39, the iris begins taking on a reddish appearance. The mouth is ventral and moderately large; its width is equal to slightly more than the greatest width of the body. Deep lateral folds are present in the lips which are completely bordered by two rows of small papillae; addiflecks There are two or three upper rows of teeth and five lower rows. The third upper row, when present, is composed of small teeth arranged in a fragmented row at the inner edge of the papillae. An analysis of eight record- ings reveals that the note repetition rate varies from eight to 32 (mean, 14) notes per minute. The upper beak is in the form of a broad arch with moderately robust lateral processes; the lower beak is Measurements of Tadpoles of frequencies usually are emphasized. Distribution: Hyla legleri occurs at elevations between 700 and 1600 meters on the between 1036 and 1427 (mean, er of these 1274) cycles per second, whereas the upper is between 2036 and 2745 (mean, 2397) cycles is Pacific slopes of the Cordillera de Talamanca in eastern Costa Rica and extreme western Panama (fig. Natural History: Hyla legleri humid montane forests, where this is inhabits species Hyla salvadorensis Mertens type, Sierra found along small streams. Some calling males have been found on rocks in the stream when these rocks are covered by dense vegetation. Hyla legleri differs by having a red eye, well-defined white stripes on the outer edges of the forearms and feet and above the anus, blends well with the color of the stream bottom, so that the tadpoles are difficult to see.
Table 6 presents the incidence of adverse reactions occurring in at least 3% of adult patients treated with 200 to breast cancer zumbathon purchase ginette-35 2mg amex 400 mg/day topiramate and was greater than placebo incidence women's health center at uic 2 mg ginette-35 visa. Table 6: Most Common Adverse Reactions in Pooled Placebo-Controlled women's health center worcester ma ginette-35 2 mg cheap, Adjunctive Epilepsy Trials in Adultsa Topiramate Dosage (mg/day) 200 to pregnancy zicam ginette-35 2 mg on line 400 (N=183) 15 6 5 4 3 25 16 13 11 10 9 6 4 3 10 7 6 4 9 29 16 m Body System/ Adverse Reaction Body as a WholeGeneral Disorders Fatigue Asthenia Back pain Chest pain Influenza-like symptoms Central & Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Dizziness Ataxia Speech disorders/Related speech problems Paresthesia Nystagmus Tremor Language problems Coordination abnormal Gait abnormal Gastro-intestinal System Disorders Nausea Dyspepsia Abdominal pain Constipation Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders Weight loss Psychiatric Disorders Somnolence Nervousness Placebo (N=291) 13 1 4 3 2 15 7 2 4 7 6 1 2 1 8 6 4 2 3 12 6 Body as a WholeGeneral Disorders Fatigue 11 14 15 Injury 7 9 6 Central & Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Paresthesia 6 35 51 Dizziness 10 8 9 Hypoesthesia 2 6 7 Language problems 2 7 6 Gastro-Intestinal System Disorders Nausea 8 9 13 Diarrhea 4 9 11 Abdominal pain 5 6 6 Dyspepsia 3 4 5 Dry mouth 2 2 3 Gastroenteritis 1 3 3 Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders Weight loss 1 6 9 Musculoskeletal System Disorders Arthralgia 2 7 3 Psychiatric Disorders Anorexia 6 9 15 Somnolence 5 8 7 Difficulty with memory 2 7 7 Insomnia 5 6 7 Difficulty with concentration/attention 2 3 6 Mood problems 2 3 6 Anxiety 3 4 5 Depression 4 3 4 Nervousness 2 4 4 Confusion 2 2 3 Psychomotor slowing 1 3 2 Reproductive Disorders, Female Menstrual disorder 2 3 2 Reproductive Disorders, Male Ejaculation premature 0 3 0 Resistance Mechanism Disorders Viral infection 3 4 4 Respiratory System Disorders Upper respiratory tract infection 12 13 14 Sinusitis 6 10 6 Pharyngitis 4 5 6 Coughing 2 2 4 Bronchitis 2 3 3 Dyspnea 2 1 3 Skin and Appendages Disorders Pruritis 2 4 2 Special Sense Other, Disorders Taste perversion 1 15 8 Urinary System Disorders Urinary tract infection 2 4 2 Vision Disorders Blurred visionc 2 4 2 aIncludes 35 adolescent patients age 12 to 15 years. Patients may have reported more than one adverse reaction during the study and can be included in more than one adverse reaction category. Topiramate clearance is decreased in the elderly only to the extent that renal function is reduced [see Dosage and Administration (2. Pediatric Pharmacokinetics Pharmacokinetics of immediate-release topiramate were evaluated in patients age 2 years to less than 16 years. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed on the basis of pharmacokinetic data from relevant topiramate clinical studies. This dataset contained data from 1217 subjects including 258 pediatric patients age 2 years to less than 16 years (95 pediatric patients less than 10 years of age). Pediatric patients on adjunctive treatment exhibited a higher oral clearance (L/h) of topiramate compared to patients on monotherapy, presumably because of increased clearance from concomitant enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs. In comparison, topiramate clearance per kg is greater in pediatric patients than in adults and in young pediatric patients (down to 2 years) than in older pediatric patients. Consequently, the plasma drug concentration for the same mg/kg/day dose would be lower in pediatric patients compared to adults and also in younger pediatric patients compared to older pediatric patients. As in adults, hepatic enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs decrease the steady state plasma concentrations of topiramate. The third column (topiramate concentration) describes how the co-administration of a drug listed in the first column modifies the concentration of topiramate when compared to topiramate given alone. An increase in the incidence of bladder tumors in males and females receiving 300 mg/kg/day was primarily due to the increased occurrence of a smooth muscle tumor considered histomorphologically unique to mice. Mutagenesis Topiramate did not demonstrate genotoxic potential when tested in a battery of in vitro and in vivo assays. Impairment of Fertility No adverse effects on male or female fertility were observed in rats administrated topiramate orally at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day (2. Study 1 was conducted in 487 patients diagnosed with epilepsy (6 to 83 years of age) who had 1 or 2 well-documented seizures during the 3-month retrospective baseline phase who then entered the study and received topiramate 25 mg/day for 7 days in an open-label fashion. In the double-blind phase, 470 patients were randomized to titrate up to 50 mg/day or 400 mg/day of topiramate. If the target dose could not be achieved, patients were maintained on the maximum tolerated dose. Fifty-eight percent of patients achieved the maximal dose of 400 mg/day for >2 weeks, and patients who did not tolerate 150 mg/day were discontinued. The primary efficacy assessment was a between-group comparison of time to first seizure during the double-blind phase. Comparison of the Kaplan-Meier survival curves of time to first seizure favored the topiramate 400 mg/day group over the topiramate 50 mg/day group (Figure 1). Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier Estimates of Cumulative Rates for Time to First Seizure in Study 1 multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Study 10) comparing a single dosage of topiramate with placebo (see Table 13). Active drug was titrated beginning at 1 mg/kg/day for a week; the dose was then increased to 3 mg/kg/day for one week, then to 6 mg/kg/day. The primary measures of effectiveness were the percent reduction in drop attacks and a parental global rating of seizure severity. Table 12: Immediate-Release Topiramate Dose Summary During the Stabilization Periods of Each of Six Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Adjunctive Trials in Adults with Partial-Onset Seizuresa Target Topiramate Dosage (mg/day) Study 2 Stabilization Dose N Mean Dose Median Dose N 3 Mean Dose Median Dose N 4 Mean Dose Median Dose N 5 Mean Dose Median Dose N 6 Mean Dose Median Dose N 7 Mean Dose Median Dose aDose-response bPlacebo 14. Patients with a history of cluster headaches or basilar, ophthalmoplegic, hemiplegic, or transformed migraine headaches were excluded from the trials. Patients were required to have completed up to a 2-week washout of any prior migraine preventive medications before starting the baseline phase. Patients who experienced 3 to 12 migraine headaches over the 4 weeks in the baseline phase were randomized to either topiramate 50 mg/day, 100 mg/day, 200 mg/day (twice the recommended daily dosage for the preventive treatment of migraine), or placebo and treated for a total of 26 weeks (8-week titration period and 18-week maintenance period). Treatment was initiated at 25 mg/day for one week, and then the daily dosage was increased by 25 mg increments each week until reaching the assigned target dose or maximum tolerated dose (administered twice daily). In Study 11, a total of 469 patients (416 females, 53 males), ranging in age from 13 to 70 years, were randomized and provided efficacy data.
To invent a new style of war was precisely the aim of the anonymous De Rebus Bellicis (Of Military Matters) women's health bikini body meal plan purchase ginette-35 2mg with mastercard, the final Roman military text-for the empire was reaching its end in the west when it was written menstrual iron deficiency cheap 2 mg ginette-35. It was written in deadly earnest by an anxious author who rightly feared for the survival of his civilization pregnancy itching purchase ginette-35 2mg fast delivery. Having established that the empire was being ruined by the enormously costly upkeep of vast military forces that nevertheless failed to menstruation color discount 2 mg ginette-35 with amex prevent ruinous barbarian incursions, and recognizing that to simply reduce troop levels would open the door to more destruction, the author offers a solution of startling modernity: mechanization. He even presents a sort of costbenefit analysis to prove that Roman military strength could be increased while reducing troop levels, by increasing fighting power per soldier. That was to be done by investing in better armor and personal weapons-including the lead-weighted darts that would later indeed find much favor with Byzantine forces-as well as in new military machines, including cart-borne multi-arrow projectors, war chariots with rotating blades, and an ox-propelled ship, whose illustration has often been reproduced. Some of the machines are quite practical, and others fantastical, but if the writer was not a practiced engineer he was certainly a coherent analyst of his own tragic times. It is characteristic of Vitruvius that this method would actually work to detect chemically contaminated soils. Book X, is mostly about machines, windlasses, pulleys, water pumps, vehicles, levers, hoists, mechanical mills, siphons, a water-powered organ, and a distance-measuring carriage-all of which can be built following his directions, and all of which would work. The same is true of the descriptions of arrow-launching catapults-all the dimensions are determined by the length of the intended arrow-in the tenth chapter of the book. Vitruvius explains how to design catapults powered by the torsion of ropes and/or twisted human hair or dried tendons, giving the exact dimensions of each component; replicas the Classical Inheritance 247 have been successfully built in modern times by following his directions. Next Vitruvius writes of the history and design concepts of swingingpole battering rams, evidently on the basis of lost Greek texts, of movable towers-discussed below-boring machines, elevating machines (ascendentem machinam) that lift assault troops to wall height (see the discussion of sambucae below), and more such. He then proceeds to give detailed construction directions for a mobile swinging-pole, protected, battering ram (testudinis arietariae) or "tortoise-ram. Diognetus had volunteers pour water, sewage, and mud in front of the walls, the mobile tower was stuck in the softened ground, and Diognetus received his requested fee: the mobile tower itself. Later, more Hellenic Byzantines could have dismissed it all as derivative of ancient Greek engineering; so it was, but for the Roman brevity, precision, and practicality. Those are also the virtues, to an even greater extent, of the thirdcentury work De Munitionibus Castrorum, on the fortification of military camps, which was once attributed to the second-century Hyginus Gromaticus ("The Surveyor"); accordingly, the author is now listed as pseudo-Hyginus. The extant part-"fragment" would imply that the complete text was many times longer, which seems unlikely-of this treatise runs to fifty-eight sections, mostly of a few lines each, making 248 the Byzantine Art of War up ten pages or so in print. Their extreme brevity and clarity are enough for exact unit-by-unit instructions on the layout of a Roman marching camp-a "marschlager" for the editor, translator, and commentator, the eminent Alfred von Domaszewski. By constructing an entrenched and palisaded camp for themselves, if necessary each and every night when marching through insecure territories, the Romans and the Byzantines after them not only guarded against dangerous night assaults, but also ensured a calm sleep undisturbed by harassment raids or infiltrators. When thousands of soldiers and horses are crowded inside a fortified perimeter, which must be as short as possible to be well guarded, a tightly defined layout of the tents, baggage, and horses, unit by unit, with clear passages between them, leading to broad "streets," is the only alternative to chaos, congestion, and confusion in the event of a enemy attack, or simply an urgent exit from the camp. Moreover, it is the only way to keep latrines well separated and downhill from streams or wells. Although they too entrenched and guarded a perimeter, they did not enforce a disciplined internal layout unit by unit-the troops camped where it suited them. Evidently this was a design exercise, and there are specific places for each unit in the layout: the cohorts of legionary heavy infantry are tented in the outer perimeter, which they would be the first to defend, and the usual twin headquarters the Quaestorium and the Praetorium are in a spacious central segment. In the Classical Inheritance 249 its small compass, the work is highly instructive, and it may well have sustained the marching-camp concept that we know was studied and practiced for at least another seven hundred years. The contents necessarily were original for the times, but although they are practical enough they show no particular ingenuity and did not perceptibly influence Byzantine practice, though the work was remembered, cited, and excerpted, by Julius Africanus among others-of whom more below-whose fragments add to the available text. Its survival is evidence in itself of continued interest in his work, but he is also cited by the better-known technologist Heron of Byzantium. In his account of the Roman siege of Syracusa, a splendid story with real military and technical content, Polybius described a naval sambuca in action: A ladder was made four feet broad and of a height equal to that of the wall. Each side was furnished with a breast work, and it was covered in by a screen at a considerable height. At the top of the masts there are pulleys with ropes, and when they are about to use it, they attach the ropes to the top of the ladder, and men standing at the stern pull them by means of the pulleys, while others stand on the prow, and supporting the engine with props, assure its being safely raised. After this the rowers on both the outer sides of the ships bring them close to the shore, and they now endeavor to set the engine. At the summit of the ladder there is a platform protected on three sides by wicker screens, on which four men mount and face the enemy resisting the efforts of those who from the battlements try to prevent the sambuca from being set against the wall. As soon as they have set it up and are on a higher level than the wall, those men pull down the wicker screens on each side of the platform and mount the battlements.
Duality of Interest On behalf of Calibra Medical women's health center yarmouth maine cheap 2mg ginette-35 with amex, the authors thank the following participating investigators: Thomas Behnke menstrual blood color buy cheap ginette-35 2 mg, Far- R womens health yakima wa trusted 2mg ginette-35. Johnson menstrual nausea and vomiting cheap 2 mg ginette-35, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk, Roche, and Sanofi; and has inherited Merck stock. Diabetes Care, Sanofi, Senseonics, Taidoc, and Xeris; has received consulting honoraria from Abbott, Capillary Biomedical, Eli Lilly and Company, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk, and Sanofi; and speaking honoraria from Abbott, MannKind, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, and Senseonics. He has received grants/research support from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline, Genentech, Intarcia, Janssen, Lexicon, Merck, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, and Sanofi. Compliance with Ethics Guidelines All procedures were performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. American Diabetes Association: Glycemic targets: standards of medical care in diabetes-2019. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Type 2 Diabetes in Adults: Management. Bott U, Muhlhauser I, Overmann H, Berger M: Validation of a diabetes-specific quality-of-life scale for patients with type 1 diabetes. Ceriello A: Postprandial hyperglycemia and diabetes complications: is it time to treat? Node K, Inoue T: Postprandial hyperglycemia as an etiological factor in vascular failure. The back country in search of Amerspecimens; travelling in much of Latin ica cannot be appreciated by the uninitiated, travelling to the who and encouragement, and laboraturned more and more towards tory studies the anurans with special emphasis on the hyThis fortuitous occurrence seemed trivlids. Little did he realize that in the ensuing 15 thouyears he would spend more than one sand nights in the quest for the nocturnal songsters, your neck, nor the three arduous days of pulling and pushing a piragua up the Rio Tuira and how a month later we returned downstream through those same rapids in seven hours, nor of crossing Chiriqui dugout in the fog and rain and Lagoon in a how we ran whose calls he came to know as well as the physical features of the frogs themNor was it within his powers to foreselves. But even in this day of a variety of means tation the only esting areas in way to many of transporof the most interis Middle America by foot, a Laguna, the moonlight across the awakening in a hammock lapping of the waves on the Peninsula Valiente, the silence Golfo Dulce, to the gentle beach of the of the conif- erous forest on Cerro Barolosa, the quetzals at Cerro Monte Cristo, the curious spider monkeys on Cerro Quia, the distant rumbling of erupting Volcan Irazu at night at La Palma, nor of the joy of having a peccary grace the meager food supplies, or of the aroma of a time-honored method of travel, though at times painfully slow and arduous, nevertheless usually trustworthy. The days thus spent seem innumerable, perhaps only because of their apparent length, and are remembered for the steep ascent to Cerro Mali and how heavy our packs were when we reached the top, the scenic walk up the Rio Tacarcuna until the river rose in flood and we made our last ford in water to our chests, the slippery roots that were used for foot-holds on Cerro stewing tinamou, or of the smell of the rain in Chiriqui, the sunrise in the cold and dampness on Cerro de la Muerte, nor least of all the splendor of the sunset after the storm at Li- Pando, and how after all day of slipping and beria. He has been happy with his associations with many natives, who have provided a sepasliding in the rain we rate, but enduring kind of education. How impressive were the chicleros knowledge of the Peten forest and its inhabitants, or the of hylids, plus but a few of the known species many other kinds of amphibians and reptiles. Memories of these people and others recall many incidents, many humorous, some happy, and a few sad, such as the sobering effect of the escape of a six-foot snake on the patrons of a small Mexican cantina, the singing of our mozos as we rode horseback across the Sierra de Coalcoman, the gleefulness with which Mayan children brought us specimens at Piste, and the caution that our camp boys displayed they thought to work were a rare or tat is unknown worth many gratifying, for the thrill of finding species in its natural habi- hardships. But the search was not always times did he successful, for how many seek the rare Plectrohyla avia and then upon seeing his only individual, slip and fall in the stream and subsequently discover that the frog had moved away, not to be seen again, or of the four nights spent in the cloud forest on Cerro Uyuca and finding but two frogs, or of finally finding Smilisca phaeota calling in eastern Nicaragua, only to have the tape recorder cease to function, or of hearing unknown calls from the treetops when catching some animal that be venomous but moreso the board grins of satisfaction when they learned that they had found something valuable to us. The pleasant memories have been embellished with some misfortune, such as the revolution in Guatemala City with the smell of tear gas permeating the cool mountain air, the drunken Tarascans invading our camp and causing several frightful minutes of anxiety, the shooting and fires at the time of the Canal Zone crisis in 1964, but these are solely the everyday events of modern man. Not all of the field work was easy; hardships are to be expected, and he would be remiss if he did not mention the mosquitos at Toocog that made our faces masses of lumps, or of the heat in the Tepalcatepec Valley, or of the cold on Volcan Barba and how the wind blew the rain level across the marsh and not being able to find the frogs, or of finding unknown tadpoles and having them die before reaching metamorphosis. These frustrations have been partially compensated by the collection of the second fringe-limbed Hijla in Mexico, the discovery of the wierd spiny frog on Cerro Pando, the identification of the "treetop bopper" with the large Gastrotheca ceratophrys, and of ascending Cerro Monte Cristo for the purpose of obtaining recordings of Hijla sahadorensis and finding them calling in the last stream. Perhaps the present generation of students in biology will not be so fortunate as to trod jungle pathways and see the living results of eons of natural selection, for in the minds of many scientists biological problems such mundane approaches to But the are history. But all inspired to study tree frogs not displeased with himself for not having donned a white laboratory coat and synthesized proteins or attempted to crack the genetic code and scanned the output of a computer instead of the results of nature. In in 1950 is student who was fact, he hopes to continue his pursuit of the tree frogs into South America where the fauna is even richer and more varied than in Middle of these things are only indirectly related to tree frogs. The search for tree frogs brought the student more than 10,000 specimens from Middle America, but before he departs, he wishes to dedicate the present publication to an inspiring teacher, valued colleague, and good friend, Charles F. Hyla tica Starrett Hyla rivularis Taylor Hyla debilis Taylor Hyla xanthosticta Duellman the Hyla pictipes Group Hyla pictipes Cope the Hyla uranochroa Group Hyla uranochroa Cope Hyla rufioculis Taylor the Hyla lancasteri Group Hyla lancasteri Barbour the Hyla zeteki Group Hyla picadoi Dunn Hyla zeteki Gaige the Hyla bogotensis Group Hyla colymba Dunn (. Ptychohyla schmidtorum Stuart Ptychohyla schmidtorum schmidtorum Stuart Ptychohyla schmidtorum chamulae Duellman Ptychohyla ignicolor Duellman - - - - - - - - - - -. Smilisca sordida Peters) Genus Pternohyla Boulenger Pternohyla dentata Smith Pternohyla fodiens Boulenger Genus Triprion Cope Triprion spatulatus spatulatus Giinther Triprion spatulatus spatuatus Giinther Triprion spatulatus reticulatus (Taylor) Triprion petasatus (Cope) Genus Pseudacris Fitzinger Pseudacris clarkii (Baird) Genus Acris Dumeril and Bibron Acris crepitans Baird - - - - 479 482 484 490 491 493 496 499 - 505 510 513 514 517 527 527 531 532 535 535 539 541 544 547 - 559 563 566 569 572 575 577 578 580 583 585 594 598 - 603 607 - 609 613 - 618 621 624 628 629 632 - 636 637 - 641 642 645 647 - - - Nomina Dubita Hyla cherrei Cope Hyla molitor O. Although the change from an ungainly lobe-finned locomotion to a terrestrial walking long and powerful hind legs. Seemingly without predilection this group of amphibians leaped into the terrestrial scene, and the frog was born! Such bizarreness of structure is equalled in the tetrapods only by the turtles; both enhanced and made possible by drastic modifications and even loss of precious bones, was agonizingly slow, generations succeeded generations, archotypes gave way to new evogait, lutionary experiments, and the land became the home for the first quadrupeds the am- - phibians.
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